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In the media introduction to this module, it was suggested that you as a nurse have an important role in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). With a focus on patient care and outcomes, nurses may not always see themselves as contributors to the development of new systems. However, as you may have observed in your own experience, exclusion of nurse contributions when implementing systems can have dire consequences. 

In this Discussion, you will consider the role you might play in systems development and the ramifications of not being an active participant in systems development. 



Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.  


To Prepare: 

Review the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) as presented in the Resources. 
Reflect on your own healthcare organization and consider any steps your healthcare organization goes through when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system. 
Consider what a nurse might contribute to decisions made at each stage of the SDLC when planning for new health information technology. 


Post a description of what you believe to be the consequences of a healthcare organization not involving nurses in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system. Provide specific examples of potential issues at each stage of the SDLC and explain how the inclusion of nurses may help address these issues. Then, explain whether you had any input in the selection and planning of new health information technology systems in your nursing practice or healthcare organization and explain potential impacts of being included or not in the decision-making process. Be specific and provide examples. 


Respond to at least two of your colleagues* on two different days, by offering additional thoughts regarding the examples shared, SDLC-related issues, and ideas on how the inclusion of nurses might have impacted the example described by your colleagues. 

*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues. 


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Fatmata Mansaray 

Jan 23, 2023Jan 23 at 10:10pm 

Manage Discussion Entry 

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), according to McGonigle and Mastrian (2018), is a way to deliver an effective, efficient information system. That can fit an organization’s business plan. The cycle is a continuous revolving process that spans the software’s life. For example, planning software production to update, renew, or a new system is developed (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2019). The SDLC process has five stages, namely, Planning, Design, Implementation, Maintenance, and Evaluation (Laureate, 2018). 

Burns (2012) purports that nurses are not always included in decision-making as it relates to technology implementation. He continued, “if an organization considers what is best for the patient, they will see that nurse plays a decisive role in Information Technology (IT) system implementation, and should be involved at all stages in the process.  

The planning stage incorporates the needs of a particular system and technical requirement and should answer the question” what is best for the patient (Laureate Education, 2018). Nurses represent the largest professional group, and they spend the most time interacting with patients through direct patient care. Thus, they would be the majority end users of information systems in an organization and would know what is best to meet the patients’ needs (McGonigle &Mastrian, 2018). 

During analysis, the requirement for the system is identified from the organization’s data. The needs and current practices are examined to determine possible changes (McGonigle &Mastrian (2019). According to Burns (2012), organizations should ensure their data is correct, and this can be done by utilizing nurses. Because nurses are responsible for recording a large amount of data. Notably, Burns (2012) states, “nurses believe they need to play a more active role when their organization is implementing new technology.” 

Analysis and design are essential in the cycle. The design focuses on what programs are needed and established how they are connected. It involves deciding on a specific function of the hardware, software, and networking possibilities. Analysis and design are crucial in the cycle; nurses can analyze the design to determine shortcomings, thus preventing costly revision dow the road (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2019).  

Implementation/ Evaluation in the phase where to software is put to work, in other words, “Go Live.” Burns (2012) states implementation is an important stage where workflows occur. Nurse leaders, Nurse informaticists, and Chief Nursing Officers can ensure a smooth transition of the software for the end-users. 

I was not a part of the planning of the IT systems in my organization; however, I believe I have an impact on decision-making. I have a role to play in learning about the system, and it helps me as an individual and impacts the decision made. It is my responsibility to learn the system. I would be able to identify the software’s strengths and weaknesses and seek to become involved in the evaluation process. According to Burns (2012), if more nurses are involved in technology implementation, that could help hospitals embrace new models of care. 

In conclusion, nurses are essential to quality healthcare delivery and should be involved in the life of the cycle of System Development. Nurses touch every aspect of care. This means they need to manage change and lead, particularly when it comes to IT (Burns, 2012). 




Burns, E., (2012). Nurses have an important role to play during technology implementation 


McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of 

knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Laureate Education (2018). Interoperability, Standards, and Security [Video file]. Retrieved 

from. https://class.waldenu.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/USW1/202070_27/MS_NURS/NURS_5051_WC/USW1_NURS_5051_module05.html?course_uid=USW1.26538.202070&service_url=https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/bbgs-deep-links-BBLEARN/app/wslinks&b2Uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclass.waldenu.edu%2Fwebapps%2Fbbgs-deep-links-BBLEARN 

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Collapse SubdiscussionDeanna Linn Howe 

Deanna Linn Howe 

TuesdayJan 24 at 7:42am 

Manage Discussion Entry 

Hi Fatmata and all, 

I appreciate your comments here.  Nurses need to be involved in the development phase of healthcare technology.  Collaboration with stakeholders and system administrators are necessary during the decision process. Collaboration ensures that the right system is being initiated that has the most value to the nurse.  Nurses can exchange and share their personal knowledge of what is necessary from a variety of departments. Knowledge exchange results when there is the clear understanding of the process that promotes learning and contributes to the future success of a project (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). Partnering with other disciplines contributes to knowledge sharing.  Would you want to be a part of a team for new technology? What aspects do you think would be most enjoyable? Worrisome? Thanks, Dr. Howe 

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning 

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Collapse SubdiscussionShanea Trevino 

Shanea Trevino 

WednesdayJan 25 at 1:32pm 

Manage Discussion Entry 

Integrating nursing knowledge or participation in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system will negate resistance and poor attitudes concerning technology in the workplace and ultimately negatively affect high-quality patient care (Barrlett, 2018). Nursing involvement creates a harmonious working relationship for improvement in workflow and collaboration, helping the success of design being more personalized and accepting of different needs centered around patient care. Since nurses are advocates by nature, their contribution is vital. According to McGonigle & Mastrian, 2022, “human factors engineering application improves ease of use, systems performance and reliability, and user satisfaction, while reducing operational errors, operator stress, training requirements, user fatigue, and product liability” (p.327). Collaboration with nurses can be opportunistic, as Dr. Howe mentions in knowledge exchange, in minimizing the need for constant modification after implementation. This can be minimized if nursing involvement is in all steps of the SDLC stages. The idea of HIT resilience looks at a culture of using technology in healthcare. The research was done by Barrett 2021 insightful in understanding how to diligently create a collaborative HIT design culture. Just as this discussion argues how influential the nursing perspective is and how catastrophic the fallout can be if it is not, information technology scholars reevaluate the theoretical meaningfulness. 

The ultimate fallout fuels the culture of technological resistance, burnout, and quality of patient care. The potential of investment will facilitate mutual respect and resilience, and leadership within the field of nursing since nursing has unique attributes and knowledge for a not one size fits all system. Continual communication and evaluation from the beginning ensure the most ensured success. “Most large IT projects – some say as many as 90% – culminate in failures in that they fail to meet user expectations, interrupt user workflow, are not user-friendly and are over-budget, delayed or ill-planned” (Barrlett, 2021, p. 781). The uniqueness of healthcare needs to have nurses be more involved than just at the bedside and have a less oppressive mindset in their abilities to do so regarding technology or other patient relationships. Leadership and empowerment are essential to building the confidence needed to place nurses in that role. I, unfortunately, do not have any personal experiences to add besides my enthusiasm to support the efforts and increase my knowledge base. Perhaps employers’ influence and policymakers can work alongside nurses in adopting strategies for improved use and participation. I think the curriculum we are collectively experiencing through this course has heightened my reality and understanding of the value of informatics, technology, and modern trends (Mendez et al., 2020). I believe advocacy in any realm of nursing gives us a voice and is imperative to outcomes for our profession, our futures as APRNs, and our patients.  


Barrett, A. K. (2018). Technological appropriations as workarounds. Information Technology & People, 31(2), 368–387. https://doi.org/10.1108/itp-01-2016-0023  

Barrett, A. K. (2021). Healthcare Workers’ Communicative Constitution of Health Information Technology (HIT) resilience. Information Technology & People, 35(2), 781–801. https://doi.org/10.1108/itp-07-2019-0329  

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2022). In Nursing Informatics and the foundation of knowledge (5th ed., pp. 191–204). Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Mendez, K. J. W., Piasecki, R. J., Hudson, K., Renda, S., Mollenkopf, N., Nettles, B. S., & Han, H. R. (2020). Virtual and augmented reality: Implications for the future of nursing education. Nurse education today, 93, 104531. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104531 

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Collapse SubdiscussionIsabelle Compere-Louis 

Isabelle Compere-Louis 

FridayJan 27 at 7:19pm 

Manage Discussion Entry 

Hello Shanea, 

Excellent post! To ensure the success of a new technology system, nurses must participate in its implementation. According to Qin et al. (2017), nurses in this ICU unit in China actively participated in the development of the intensive care information systems (ICIS) and fully utilized it to document care. This study found that being involved in developing this new system resulted in significant improvements in the quality and efficiency of nursing documentation, medication order transcription, and administration. It allowed nurses to spend more time with their patients, improving the quality of care and leading to an overall improvement in nursing performance. Failure to include nurses in the implementation of a new technology system can lead to a variety of issues, including nurse resistance, frustration, a lack of knowledge, and wasted time (Laureate, 2018). 



Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). Managing health information technology[Video file]. Author. 

Qin, Y., Zhou, R., Wu, Q., et al.(2017). The effect of nursing participation in the design of a critical care information system: a case study in a                 Chinese hospital. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak17, 165). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-017-0569-3 

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Collapse SubdiscussionOluremilekun Taylor 

Oluremilekun Taylor 

ThursdayJan 26 at 4:14am 

Manage Discussion Entry 

Hello Fatmata, thanks for sharing. 

       I enjoyed going through the case study describing the use of the system and software in Chapter 9 of Nursing Informatics. In the scenario, discussions between the IT analyst and the nursing staff are described. It appears the nurses had “blank faces” and “puzzled glances,” and this interchange suggests the IT analyst did not adequately explain the system, his position, and the options available throughout the planning process. (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2021). It is the leader’s responsibility to adjust their instruction style if all of the participants are having trouble following the instructions. The wellness coordinator was incorporated into the design of the new system after this program hired a new IT analyst, who evaluated the hospital information system (HIS) for deficiencies. The following step was analysis, followed by any adjustments before implementation that were judged essential. Finally, they had a meeting to share their thoughts and viewpoints on the entire process; a key topic of discussion was how to increase communication between specialties. 

       To add on the impacts you have put across, i think if nurses are not included in the decision-making process, they may not be aware of the potential implications of the new system on patient care (Qin et al., 2017). For example, a new medication administration system may require nurses to enter data in a different way than they are accustomed to. If this is not taken into consideration during system testing, it could lead to user frustration and decreased adoption rates. Including nurses in the decision-making process can help ensure that the system is tested for usability and functionality and meets the needs of those who will be using it. 


McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2021). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. 

Qin, Y., Zhou, R., Wu, Q., Huang, X., Chen, X., Wang, W., … & Yu, P. (2017). The effect of nursing participation in the design of a critical care information system: a case study in a Chinese hospital. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 17(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12911-017-0569-3Links to an external site. 

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Shirley Moreta 

Jan 23, 2023Jan 23 at 11:01pm 

Manage Discussion Entry 

The success of health organizations in the modern world largely relies on the use of different health information technologies. Health technologies enable them to achieve outcomes such as efficiency, safety, and quality. Health organizations should prioritize the involvement of its employees, including nurses in the assessment, planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluating the use of health technologies in the provision of patient care services. Therefore, this paper examines the consequences of a healthcare organization not involving nurses in each stage of SDLC when purchasing a new health information technology system and my organizational experience. 


            System development life cycle (SDLC) is a process that organizations utilize when adopting technologies for service provision to their populations. It comprises steps that include analysis, design, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance. Nurses should be actively involved in each of these steps in purchasing and implementing new systems in healthcare. Failure to involve them results in unwanted outcomes in an organization. For example, the analysis phase in SDLC focuses on the need for the healthcare system in an organization. Failure to involve nurses would result in the adoption of a system that does not address the organization and stakeholders’ needs (Kutney-Lee et al., 2019; Vest et al., 2019). The system may not address nurses’ needs due to the lack of inclusion of their needs that are essential for system function. 

            Implementation phase in SDLC focuses on the use of the system in the provision of patient care. Nurses are largely involved in the use of most healthcare systems in the patient care process. Interventions such as training them, coaching, and mentorship are crucial for the successful use of the system. As a result, inadequate involvement of the nurses in this step will result in resistance to change, system underutilization, and resource wastage. Evaluation and maintenance stages in SDLC focus on assessing if the system achieved its desired outcomes and how to ensure its sustainability. Nurses provide accurate subjective and objective data on system efficiency and needs and recommendations to enhance its performance (Schenk et al., 2018). Failing to involve nurses in these steps would result in biased evaluation data and ineffective strategies used to ensure system sustainability in the organization. 


            I have been involved in the adoption of new health information technology in my organization. My involvement was in all the stages of SDLC, including assessment, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance. I participated in activities that include organizational needs assessment, provider training, system adoption, coaching system users, and obtaining evaluation data from them. The process relied on interdisciplinary collaboration. 

My involvement had immense benefits to the organization. First, it ensured the adoption of a system that addressed the actual needs of the organization. Needs analysis identified the gaps the system needed to address for the organization’s success. The involvement also resulted in resource efficiency. There were minimal resources wastages since the adopted system aligned with the organization and stakeholders’ needs. Lastly, the involvement led to stakeholder empowerment and project sustainability. The use of interventions such as training, active involvement, coaching, and mentorship contributed to competency development and empowerment of the stakeholders to be involved in strategies to enhance system efficiency and outcomes (Brown et al., 2020; Kang et al., 2019). 


            In summary, nurses should be involved in the purchase and implementation of new systems in their organizations. They should be proactively involved in all the SDLC stages. The benefits include system sustainability, resource efficiency, and the selection of a system that addresses the actual needs of an organization. I have been involved in the selection and implementation of a system in my organization. The involvement increased my understanding of the importance of nurses’ involvement in system adoption in healthcare. 




Brown, J., Pope, N., Bosco, A. M., Mason, J., & Morgan, A. (2020). Issues affecting nurses’ capability to use digital technology at work: An integrative review. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(15–16), 2801–2819. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15321 

Kang, S., Baek, H., Jung, E., Hwang, H., & Yoo, S. (2019). Survey on the demand for adoption of Internet of Things (IoT)-based services in hospitals: Investigation of nurses’ perception in a tertiary university hospital. Applied Nursing Research, 47, 18–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2019.03.005 

Kutney-Lee, A., Sloane, D. M., Bowles, K. H., Burns, L. R., & Aiken, L. H. (2019). Electronic Health Record Adoption and Nurse Reports of Usability and Quality of Care: The Role of Work Environment. Applied Clinical Informatics, 10(1), 129–139. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1678551 

Schenk, E., Schleyer, R., Jones, C. R., Fincham, S., Daratha, K. B., & Monsen, K. A. (2018). Impact of Adoption of a Comprehensive Electronic Health Record on Nursing Work and Caring Efficacy. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 36(7), 331. https://doi.org/10.1097/CIN.0000000000000441 

Vest, J. R., Jung, H.-Y., Wiley, K., Kooreman, H., Pettit, L., & Unruh, M. A. (2019). Adoption of Health Information Technology Among US Nursing Facilities. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 20(8), 995-1000.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.11.002 


Esther O Adeyemo 

TuesdayJan 24 at 8:49am 

Manage Discussion Entry 

For Health Information Technology to be effectively implemented, the Systems Development Life Cycle must be adhered to. The essential phases of SDLC include planning, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance. To get the desired result, it is crucial to carry out each of these stages (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2022). Nurses’ contributions are crucial to the success of new health information systems, which should be developed with a focus on patient care and outcomes (Stanley, 2017). Therefore, it may be very detrimental to not include nurses in the process or to ignore their input when introducing new technologies.  This means that the nurses will be uninformed of any facts regarding the new system prior to its introduction and will only have a little time to get familiar with its functioning.  In addition, some nurses will be unable to attend training on how to use the new system, which will reduce their capacity and slow down the workflow. Some of them will almost certainly make errors. Therefore, the system’s advantages would be lost, and the system would be considered a failure. Management should include nurses in all aspects of the system development life cycle (SDLC), from planning to maintenance, for a successful implementation (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2022).  For instance, the nurse would have additional contributions that may help efficient planning if involved in the planning phase of a project. 

During the development and deployment of the Epic system in my healthcare organization, the leadership of the organization included all nurses at each step of the SDLC. Inclusivity proven to be a worthwhile approach since the developers were able to catch communication and design faults that might reduce the system’s efficiency and performance from nurses’ input. Based on the input, they investigated redesigning procedures in some of the Units to be more equivalent to the charting requirements. It is unarguable that the company would have suffered higher operating expenditures if such deficiencies had not been identified immediately and promptly. 

Nurses are major stakeholders in system implementation in healthcare and must therefore be engaged for effective system deployment (Stanley, 2017). Creating a successful health information system that focuses on patient care and results requires extensive participation from nurses, since they provide critical contributions to the creation of the new system (Alotaibi & Federico, 2017). As a result, a lack of nurse engagement in the process, as well as the exclusion of nurse contributions while establishing systems, might have serious effects. 


Alotaibi, Y. K., & Federico, F. (2017). The impact of Health Information Technology on patient safety. Saudi Medical Journal,38(12), 1173–1180. https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2017.12.20631  

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2022). In Nursing Informatics and the foundation of knowledge (5th ed., pp. 191–204). Jones & Bartlett Learning.  

Stanley, D. (2017). Leadership and management. Clinical Leadership in Nursing and Healthcare, 91–105. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119253785.ch5  

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Collapse SubdiscussionFatmata Mansaray 

Fatmata Mansaray 

TuesdayJan 24 at 10:13pm 

Manage Discussion Entry 

The Informatics Nurse Specialist (INS) has numerous roles and one is of the project manager. In the project manager role, the INS is responsible for the planning and implementation of informatics projects and acts as a liaison among clinicians, management, information systems, stakeholders and all interested parties (McGonigle, 2018). Using the SDLC model requires analysis, creation of a plan, implementation, and maintenance of an information system as a roadmap, and the INS can avoid costly mistakes. The analysis phase is the development of a need’s assessment for the entire organization, including professional and ancillary staff, understanding the problems or business needs. McGonigle (2018) wrote that administrators need information systems that facilitate their administrative role. They particularly need systems that provide financial, risk management, quality assurance, human resources, payroll, patient registration, acuity, communication, and scheduling functions. A new electronic health records system (EHR) would take care of many of these needs. 


McGonigle, D. (2018). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge (A. Martin, Ed. Fourth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. 


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