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Week 6 Discussion: Correlational statistics

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses and respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, evidence, or research.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own research in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional research.
  • Suggest an alternative perspective based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

1. Week 6 Discussion: Correlational statistics

Main post

    Correlational statistics usually provide information on the strength and direction of the relationship but do not imply causation. Correlational statistics is a statistical tool commonly utilized in research to evaluate the agreement between two methodologies or the relationship between variables (Janse et al., 2021). One healthcare delivery or nursing practice problem one can explore using correlational statistics is the correlation between medication adherence and readmission rates. Understanding the association between medication adherence and readmission is crucial because high readmission rates might hurt healthcare costs (Owusu et al., 2022). According to Murad et al. (2022), medication adherence refers to the degree to which patients follow their healthcare providers’ prescriptions. It is commonly measured as the proportion of prescribed therapies that the patient takes. Correlational statistics can help identify patterns and trends in this area, providing valuable insights for improving healthcare delivery and nursing practices.

Research question: How does medication adherence among chronic condition patients impact the likelihood of being readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge?

Hypotheses:  The null hypothesis for this research question would be that there is no significant relationship between medication adherence and readmission rates for patients with chronic conditions. The alternate hypothesis would suggest that higher medication adherence levels are associated with lower readmission rates within 30 days of discharge among this population.

Purpose statement: This study aims to explore the potential impact of medication adherence on hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge and identify factors that may influence adherence levels in patients with chronic conditions.  

Variables and expected relationships: The dependent variable would be the likelihood of being readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge, while the independent variable would be medication adherence among patients with chronic conditions to support this research study best. Other recommended variables could include age, comorbidities, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare resources.

     The expectation is that there will be a negative relationship between medication adherence and the likelihood of hospital readmission, as better adherence typically leads to improved health outcomes and less likelihood of readmission within 30 days of discharge. Including additional variables such as age, comorbidities, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare resources will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing readmission rates among patients with chronic conditions.

Rationale for predicted relationships and additional contributing factors

     I believe there will be a negative relationship between medication adherence and hospital readmission because failure to take prescribed medications as directed can lead to a worsening of chronic conditions, resulting in an increased risk of readmission. Understanding readmission factors can enhance patient management in inpatient treatment facilities, enabling early intervention to reduce readmission rates and save costs (Owusu et al., 2022). Other factors affecting the outcome include patient education level, social support systems, and mental health status. For example, patients with higher education levels may be more likely to understand the importance of medication adherence, leading to lower readmission rates. Additionally, patients with robust social support systems may have reminders and encouragement to adhere to their medication regimen, reducing the likelihood of readmission. Mental health status can also play a role, as individuals with untreated mental health conditions may struggle with medication adherence, potentially increasing their risk of hospital readmission.

References

Janse, R. J., Hoekstra, T., Jager, K. J., Zoccali, C., Tripepi, G., Dekker, F. W., & van Diepen, M. (2021). Conducting correlation analysis: important limitations and pitfalls. Clinical kidney journal, 14(11), 2332–2337. https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab085

Murad, H., Basheikh, M., Zayed, M., Albeladi, R., & Alsayed, Y. (2022). The Association Between Medication Non-Adherence and Early and Late Readmission Rates for Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. International journal of general medicine, 15, 6791–6799. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S376926

Owusu, E., Oluwasina, F., Nkire, N., Lawal, M. A., & Agyapong, V. I. O. (2022). Readmission of Patients to Acute Psychiatric Hospitals: Influential Factors and Interventions to Reduce Psychiatric Readmission Rates. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9), 1808. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091808

2. Selected problem and research question.

      The problem selected for this discussion is perinatal anxiety. Perinatal anxiety refers to anxiety experienced by individuals during pregnancy and the postpartum period (Green, S.M. et al. ,2020). The prevalence rates of maternal anxiety have been found to be 18.2% in the 1st trimester, 19.1% in the 2nd trimester and 24.6% in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy (Li, X. et al. ,2022). Perinatal anxiety can have significant negative impacts on maternal well-being and fetal development. Pregnant women with anxiety are more at risk of experiencing mental health disorders during the postpartum period. Furthermore, women with prenatal anxiety are also at risk for pregnancy complications, and poorer obstetric outcomes. A child exposed to prenatal maternal anxiety may have poor birth outcomes like preterm birth (Li, X. et al. ,2022). It is important for women to be properly assessed and get treatment for anxiety when pregnant and during the postpartum period to mitigate the negative effects of anxiety. The research question for the problem is, ‘What is the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in treating perinatal anxiety?” This research question aims to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and provide valuable insights into a potentially beneficial treatment approach for perinatal anxiety.

Null hypothesis and alternate hypotheses for the research question

The research question “What is the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in treating perinatal anxiety?” can be analyzed using a hypothesis testing framework. The null hypothesis, alternate hypothesis, and the variables are as follows,

Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference in the reduction of perinatal anxiety symptoms between individuals receiving Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and those not receiving CBT.

Alternate Hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference in the reduction of perinatal anxiety symptoms between individuals receiving Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and those not receiving CBT, indicating that CBT is effective in treating perinatal anxiety.

Dependent and independent variables recommended to best support the research study.

Dependent Variable: Perinatal anxiety symptoms: Perinatal anxiety symptoms is the variable that is being measured or assessed in the study. It represents the outcome of interest, specifically the level of anxiety experienced by women during the perinatal period.

Independent Variable: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is the variable that is manipulated or administered by the researchers. It represents the intervention being studied, specifically the provision of CBT as a treatment for perinatal anxiety.

Expected relationship between variables and why

     The prediction for the expected relationship between the dependent and independent variable is positive. This is because cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a well-established and evidence-based intervention for treating anxiety disorders, including perinatal anxiety. Numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of CBT in reducing anxiety symptoms across various populations. In Green, S.M. et al., (2020), it was found that participants in cognitive behavioral group therapy reported significantly greater reductions in the primary outcome of anxiety compared to those in waitlist.  Given this body of research, it is reasonable to expect that CBT would also be effective in treating perinatal anxiety.

        Also, CBT targets maladaptive thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to anxiety. Through techniques such as cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy, CBT helps individuals develop coping skills and strategies to manage anxiety symptoms effectively (Li, X. et al. ,2022). Perinatal anxiety may be exacerbated by unique stressors related to pregnancy and childbirth, but the underlying mechanisms of anxiety are the same as those in other contexts. Therefore, it is likely that CBT would be effective in addressing perinatal anxiety by targeting these underlying mechanisms.

       In addition, it has been noted that many pregnant women show more willingness for and have fewer concerns about psychotherapy than pharmacotherapy (Uguz, F., & Ak, M. ,2021). Most women prefer psychotherapy as a first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to its non-invasive nature and focus on developing coping skill (Uguz, F., & Ak, M. ,2021). This preference for psychotherapy, coupled with the established efficacy of CBT, suggests that individuals undergoing CBT for perinatal anxiety may experience positive outcomes.

      Based on previous research findings, the mechanism of action of CBT, and patient preferences, a positive relationship is expected between the administration of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and the reduction of perinatal anxiety symptoms. Therefore, the alternate hypothesis suggests that there is a significant difference between women receiving CBT and those not receiving CBT, indicating the efficacy of CBT in treating perinatal anxiety may be true.

Other factors that might affect the outcome.

   Other factors that might affect the outcome of the study include lack of or insufficient social support, patients’ personality and mental psychological status at the time of the study, and the setting of the study.

References,

Green, S. M., Donegan, E., McCabe, R. E., Streiner, D. L., Agako, A., & Frey, B. N. (2020). Cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 54(4), 423–432. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867419898528

Li, X., Laplante, D. P., Paquin, V., Lafortune, S., Elgbeili, G., & King, S. (2022). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal maternal depression, anxiety and stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Psychology Review, 92, 102129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2022.102129

Uguz, F., & Ak, M. (2021). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder: a retrospective cohort study on therapeutic efficacy, gestational age and birth weight. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil: 1999), 43(1), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0792

**Response to Colleague 1:**

 

Your discussion on utilizing correlational statistics to explore the relationship between medication adherence and readmission rates among patients with chronic conditions is well-structured and provides valuable insights into an important healthcare delivery problem. By framing the research question, hypotheses, purpose statement, and expected variables and relationships, you have outlined a clear research plan to investigate this issue.

 

One aspect that could be further explored is the potential moderating or mediating variables that may influence the relationship between medication adherence and readmission rates. For example, socioeconomic status, access to healthcare resources, and comorbidities may moderate or mediate the association between medication adherence and readmission rates among patients with chronic conditions. Considering these factors could enhance the comprehensiveness of the research study and provide a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between medication adherence and readmission rates.

 

Moreover, discussing the implications of the findings for clinical practice and healthcare policy could add depth to your analysis. If the research confirms a significant relationship between medication adherence and readmission rates, healthcare providers and policymakers may need to prioritize interventions aimed at improving medication adherence among patients with chronic conditions to reduce readmission rates and improve patient outcomes.

 

Overall, your analysis provides a solid foundation for investigating the correlation between medication adherence and readmission rates among patients with chronic conditions, and further exploration of moderating or mediating variables and implications for clinical practice and policy could enhance the comprehensiveness of your research plan.

 

**Response to Colleague 2:**

 

Your exploration of perinatal anxiety as a healthcare problem and the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in treating this condition is insightful and well-supported by relevant literature. By framing the research question, hypotheses, and variables, you have provided a clear roadmap for investigating the effectiveness of CBT in addressing perinatal anxiety.

 

One aspect that could be further considered is the potential limitations and challenges associated with conducting research on perinatal anxiety and CBT. For example, recruiting and retaining participants in longitudinal studies on perinatal mental health may be challenging due to the transient nature of pregnancy and postpartum periods. Additionally, ensuring adherence to CBT protocols and addressing potential barriers to treatment engagement among pregnant and postpartum women may require tailored strategies and interventions.

 

Furthermore, discussing the cultural and contextual factors that may influence the efficacy of CBT in different populations could add depth to your analysis. Cultural beliefs, social support systems, and access to mental healthcare services may vary across different demographic groups, impacting the acceptability and effectiveness of CBT for perinatal anxiety. Considering these factors could inform the development of culturally sensitive and contextually relevant interventions to address perinatal anxiety in diverse populations.

 

Overall, your analysis provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of CBT for treating perinatal anxiety, and further exploration of the limitations, challenges, and cultural considerations associated with conducting research in this area could enhance the comprehensiveness of your discussion.

The post Week 6 Discussion: Correlational statistics appeared first on Destiny Papers.

Week 6 Discussion: Correlational statistics
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